If your horse or pony is a little on the chubby side then you’re not alone!
The National Equine Health Survey has shown that around 20% of the equine population is overweight or obese and feedback from vets and nutritionists suggests this figure could be considerably higher. Being overweight increases the risk of laminitis in any horse or pony so to avoid this horrible disease you really need to take action and get your horse’s diet under control.
The key is to use feeds that are low in sugar and starch which usually means they contain lots of fibre and oil. High or prolonged intakes of sugar and starch are increasingly being linked to insulin dysregulation which is a predisposing factor to laminitis. Be careful that you don’t over-condition your horse as the greatest risk factor for laminitis is being overweight. Unfortunately “fat” is becoming normal – research has shown that horse owners frequently underestimate the condition score of their horse meaning they are underestimating their risk of laminitis too. If you are in any doubt ask a nutritionist to assess your horse and don’t succumb to peer pressure to have a cuddly pony – cuddly might be cute but it isn’t healthy!
If you really do need to promote weight gain then feeds such as Alfa A Molasses Free and Alfa-Beet are really low in starch and sugar but contain moderate levels of energy (calories) Alfa-A Molasses Free is a medium energy feed but contains around 10 times less starch than a cereal based feed with a comparable energy value.
A couple of studies have been done investigating this including one by our very own nutritionist Tracey Hammond. The general estimate is a reduction in intake of about 75-80% depending on the time of year. Do be aware that if you take the muzzle off and let your horse or pony graze freely they can consume their total daily requirement in just a few hours! Some horses and ponies have adapted their grazing behaviour to increase intake even when wearing a muzzle so do keep an eye on what they are doing!
Hi-Fi Good Doer contains a higher proportion of straw than Hi-Fi Lite which helps to reduce the energy value slightly. It also contains added spearmint oil and some added nutrients that tend to be missing from the diet when access to fresh pasture is restricted such as selenium and copper. Hi-Fi Good Doer can be particularly useful for those who can be fussy or if you are trying to hide medication. If you aren’t feeding a balancer or supplement then Hi-Fi Good Doer would also be the best feed to use.
Molasses itself is not dangerous or harmful to horses – it has been used as an ingredient in horse feeds for decades. It is a source of sugar and if used in large amounts can significantly increase the amount of sugar a horse consumes. The key point is how much molasses is added to a feed and how much sugar the other ingredients contain – this determines the overall sugar content and therefore suitability of a feed for a horse or pony prone to laminitis. The Laminitis Trust have strict criteria based on findings from independent research as to what levels are acceptable. If the total sugar and starch content of a feed are below the levels set by the Trust then that is what determines the suitability of the feed for a horse or pony prone to laminitis.
Hi-Fi Lite combines chopped straw and alfalfa with a light molasses coating. Hi-Fi Lite provides 7.5MJ/kg digestible energy, 7% sugar and 1.5% starch and so is a low calorie, sugar and starch feed. Hi-Fi Lite is particularly useful for weight loss if a low calorie forage replacer is required for good do-ers, or overweight horses when only haylage may be available on the yard for example.
Hi-Fi Molasses Free combines chopped and pelleted alfalfa and straw with a light rapeseed oil coating and the added herbs mint and fenugreek for tastiness. Hi-Fi Molasses Free provides 8.5MJ/kg digestible energy, 2.5% sugar and 1.5% starch. Use Hi-Fi Molasses Free if your preference is for a molasses free feed or if an exceptionally low sugar and starch ration is required for example for those with Equine Metabolic Syndrome.
If your horse isn’t receiving a bucket feed, but is overweight then energy or calories are being over-supplied by grazing and/or forage and it is these that need to be managed in order to encourage weight loss in conjunction with increased exercise.
Tips for managing grass access include turnout on a no grass area with supplementary forage, strip grazing or the use of a grazing muzzle. When it comes to forage, mature forages with a lower digestibility will provide less energy. Look for coarse, stalky hay or appropriate low calorie hay replacers. Straw can replace up to 30% of the total forage ration to reduce energy intake as long as it is introduced gradually to the diet. The overall amount of forage may also need to be restricted to 1.5% of the horse’s bodyweight on a dry matter basis daily to assist weight loss.
Whilst grazing and forage can over-supply energy or calories, UK pasture and forage tend to lack key trace minerals such as copper, selenium and zinc and conserved forage also lacks vitamin E. A low calorie fibre feed from the Dengie range combined with Leisure Balancer or Leisure Vits & Mins can provide a balanced ration.
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