How old is old?
Horses are living longer but are often healthier for longer too and so just because a horse or pony is in their twenties or even their thirties, it doesn’t mean their nutritional requirements have changed. If they are still holding their weight well and can eat without any problem – as many native ponies in their thirties can, there is no need to make any changes. However, for those that are starting to show signs of old age, a few key adjustments can help them continue in good condition for many years to come. Loose, worn and missing teeth are a common problem for veterans and as forage should make up at least half of every horse’s diet, it is no surprise that when they simply can’t eat it as easily any more, weight loss and colic can occur.
PPID is another issue that is associated with age. Previously known as Cushings Syndrome, PPID or Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction, is a degenerative endocrine disorder that disrupts the control of hormones produced in the pituitary gland. Horses and ponies with PPID are predisposed to laminitis and so their diet and management should reflect this.
If your pony hasn’t had laminitis to date then it is likely that not being able to consume enough forage is the most pressing issue as weight loss will soon ensue if this isn’t addressed. It is also much harder to put weight back on an older animal compared with trying to maintain it. A grass and alfalfa based chopped fibre feed such as Hi-Fi Senior would be a good base to start with alongside some soaked Alfa-Beet which is very low in sugar and starch so will help to bring the overall sugar intake down. Although Hi-Fi Senior does contain grass, the overall sugar content is comparable with a grass hay so presents no greater risk than using hay.
For horses and ponies with a history of laminitis, feeds such as Hi-Fi Molasses Free mixed with Alfalfa Pellets or high fibre cubes can be a lower sugar option than those based on grass. However, they won’t be as digestible and so a horse or pony may not do so well on them which may require some additional oil to be added to help maintain bodyweight safely.
When a horse or pony has multiple issues then we have to establish which is the greatest or most imminent threat to their health and welfare. Historically, the advice for horses with liver disease has been to avoid oil as an energy source and keep protein levels low. As your horse has had laminitis in the past, oil would be a safer energy source to use in preference to cereals which contain lots of starch. More recent advice such as that by Andy Durham writing in Equine Applied and Clinical Nutrition suggests that inclusion of oil at 0.1ml/kg bodyweight is perfectly acceptable for horses with liver disease and that levels up to 1ml/kg bodyweight might be required to safely maintain or promote weight gain.
With regard to protein intake, it’s most definitely a case of low protein but not no protein as protein is needed as part of the immune system, hormones and building tissues such as muscle. Although the level of protein in pure alfalfa feeds often looks high and deters people from using it, it is important to consider that a large Stubbs scoop only holds 400grams of Alfa-A Oil so the actual amount of protein supplied is not excessive by any means. Given that alfalfa is so low in sugar and starch naturally, it is a really useful way to help horses maintain their weight, particularly those with a history of laminitis. Therefore, feeds such as Alfa-A Oil are suitable when used in moderation for your horse.
With temperatures forecast to be below zero and snow fall for areas of the country, ensuring your horse or pony is kept warm and going about your normal routine can be a challenge.
There is concern regarding a potential forage shortage this winter. Many ran out of forage before the end of last winter and a dry summer has seen the early use of hay and haylage harvested this year. So if you find yourself short of hay and haylage this winter then what’s the alternative?
Whilst we have all been enjoying the sunny weather there is no doubt that the grass is suffering with brown, bare paddocks a common sight. So what does a hot, dry spell mean for our grazing and the horses on it?
A guide to the Dengie products that can be used to replace or supplement your hay and haylage rations, limited turnout time or poor grazing
Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID) is a degenerative endocrine disorder that disrupts the control of hormones produced in the pituitary gland.